Many of the species planted will be selected from the 2006
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  Maple, poplar and white spruce have the highest annual carbon accumulation (fix carbon) and are therefore preferred as a more dominant species as they also provide excellent perching and cover for wildlife. Ref: Annual carbon accumulations in agro-forestry plantations

 
  Family Pinaceae    
  Mongolian Pine, AKA - Scotch Pine- Pinus sylvestris L. var. Mongolica - A tall tree growing to 20 meters on favorable sites. Very tolerant of infertile and dry soils. Currently thirty-nine accessions of Mongolia pine are being propagated for evaluation on the Canadian plains. Life span 60 to 70 years. Fully hardy (zone 1b).  
  Korean pine - Pinus koraiensis - Pinus subgenus Strobus - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - . The Korean Pine can reach heights of up to 27 meters (90 feet). Economic value: The seeds are extensively harvested and sold as pine nuts, particularly in northeastern China; it is the most widely traded pine nut in international commerce Conditions/Habitat/Kind of Forest: Korean Pine grows best in direct sunlight and in most types of well drained soils and is adaptable to most soil types and pH as long as they are well-drained, full sun to light shade, moderately drought, tolerant. Korean Pine  
  Manchurian fir - Abies holophylla - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - growing to 30 m tall and 1 meter in trunk diameter with a narrowly conical crown of horizontal spreading branches. Habitat native to Manchuria and Korea Conditions/Habitat/Kind of Forest prefers moist, well-drained, acidic soil, full sun. Manchurian Fir  
  Daurian larches (Larix gmelinii syn. Larix dahurica) 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - grows on both boggy and well-drained soils, including on the shallow soils. Most cold-hardy tree in the world, tolerating temperatures below -70 °C. Trees 10-30 m tall, rarely 40 m, with a trunk up to 1 meter diameter, often much smaller due to harsh sites and climates; long, horizontally spreading branches and on open crown. Needles turn bright yellow to orange before they fall in the autumn. Economic value: The tough resinous wood is durable in contact with the soil and is used for railroad ties, posts, sills, mine props, beams and boats. Other uses include the manufacture of excelsior, cabinet work, interior finish, and utility poles.  
  Hardwoods    
 

Mongolian oak - Quercus mongolica - density (.67-.75 g/cm3), A medium sized, single to multi-stemmed Asian white oak reaching 25 to 35 feet in height. Grows well in rich, moderately moist soil or dry, sandy soil. Canopy spread of 28 feet, provides useful timber, acorns provide food for small game animals and are used to fatten swine and poultry. The oaks can tolerate temperatures of -40 to –50 Centigrade, but not low humidity conditions.

These will attract populations of monophagous butterflies normally associated with this species of oak, such as three species of Licaenidae (Favonius taxila, F. cognatus, Japonica lutea), Nimphalidae (Neptis thisbe), Hesperidae (Erynnis montanus), and Noctuidae (Catocala dula). Oaks are one of the favorites of the gypsy moth, therefore pheromone traps will be used to reduce the affects of this pest.

   
  Mancurian ash - Fraxinus Mandshurica - Height: 10M, Spread: 5M, Golden in autumn,  
  Russian Ash - Sorbus Aucuparia 'Rossica' - Fragrant white flower clusters in spring. Orange foliage with reddish-orange berries in autumn. Height 8.0m, Spread 4.0m. drought tolerant  
  Canadian Sugar Maple - Acer saccharum - and not the indiginous Manchurian Maple (Acer mandshuricum), The Sugar Maple is one of the most important Canadian trees followed by Black Maple (Acer nigrum). One of the best of the larger shade trees, growing to 10-40 m (30-130 feet) in height. The larger maple species produce a valuable timber, as well as Maple Sugar, a Canadian favorite.  
  Mongolian linden - Tilia mongolica - was selected for its majestic upright form, its strong central leader and its disease-free foliage. It will grow to be about 40 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 30 feet. Best of all, it has consistently spectacular gold fall color that makes it stand out like a beacon in the fall landscape.  
  Birch - Betula platyphylla or Hustai in Mongolian. Four types of birch are under consideration for the plantings. Daurian birch - Betula davurica - grow 40' to 60' tall, and are tolerant of dry, gravelly, unfertile soils and easy to grow. The Manchurian Birch -Betula mandschurica; Alaska Birch (fall foliage)- Betula neoalaskana, syn. B. resinifera; and the Siberian Silver Birch - Betula pendula var. platyphylla.  
  Mongolian Poplar - Populus suaveolens or Populus Salicaceae - excellent for shelterbelts or beside pathway through the forest poplar (Populus davidiana, P. suaveolens)  
  Manitou Poplar - Populus x deltoides Bartr. 'Manitou' - rapid growth, insect and disease resistance and broad crown development. A Tall male tree growing 13 meters after 20 years . Medium lifespan, 30 to 40 years, fully hardy (zone 1b).    
  OTHER SPECIES    
  Siberian Alder - Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa or Alnus viridis crispa  
  Caragana - Caragana arborescens Lam - native to Manchuria and Siberia. Caragana is a valuable species for field farmstead and roadside shelterbelts and wildlife plantings. It provides excellent wind erosion control, traps snow and gives good cover for wildlife. If planted along the banks of rivers and streams the seeds will propogate downstream. Valued species for wood-turning. A multi-stemmed shrub growing 6 to 7 meters, tolerant of adverse growing conditions,doesn't mind poor, dry soils, tolerant of extreme cold, tolerant of salt, tolerant of winds, fixes nitrogen. Competitive ability is high. Lifespan is 60 to 70 years. Fully hardy (zone 1a).  
  Lilac - Syringa vulgaris - to 25' tall with stocky , can with stand -40 degrees, some of the hardiest of woody ornamental shrubs. They provide colourful, fragrant flowers in spring and early summer.    
 

The Forest will provide habitat for wildlife like the endangered Daurian Hedgehog: Meadow steppe with rodent burrows, i.e. marmots (Marmota spp.) and ground squirrels
(Citellus spp.); associated with birch (Betula spp.), poplar (Populus spp.), larch (Larix spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) in wet areas; also with Vaccinium spp., pea trees and pea shrubs (Caragana spp.), Achnotherum and Poaceae.

   
   
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